Value of Bicultural Protocols for the Concerened Communities
Biocultural community protocol (BCP) is the documentation of bio-assets, prodution systems, history, heritage, traditional knowledge (TK), landscape, culture and products of the relevant community. BCP empowers communities and giving voice to local/native communities, especially pastorlaists (In line with rights-based policy). It develop awareness about culture, value and tradition to address challenges (cross breeding, producst/innovations). Also it helps in awareness about the rights of the communities, i.e. grazing, breeding and political rights etc. It is a good tool of information exchange, communication to other stakeholders and linking different communities.
Process of BCP
Community initiates and owns BCP. Then Invites others stakeholders if appropriate, aim for government reconition and follow up if applicable. The shephards, traditional philosophers, elders, healers and other stakeholders are taken on board in this process. The pastoralists BCP is mainly focus on genetic resources for food and agriculture and grazing lands.
Kohi camel is predominantly found in Suleiman mountainous region of Balochistan, Pashtoonkhua and Punjab provinces of the country. Some specimens are also found in the Paktia province of Afghanistan. But 70% of the breed is found in the Balochistan province.
Production systems and socioeconomic importance
There are three major camel production systems in this region viz; nomadic, transhumant or semi-nomadic and sedentary. Socio-economic importance of camel is closely associated with existed production systems. These systems are largely determined by climatic conditions, a topography of the land, plant growth phenology, water sources, etc. As the camels are always on the move, they hardly spend more than one month at one place.
The Kohi camel plays a pivotal role in the socio-economic activities of the region. It is used in the high mountains of Suleiman mountainous series for the transportation of various items. The animal is well fit for work in that hilly land and the broad wide cannon bone make it well to do in that habitat. Camel is also used for the pastoral migration and milk production. Mangrota camel fair is one of the largest camel’s socioeconomic and cultural activities of the camel herders of Kohi breed. The herders manage camel movement and migration pattern according to the onset of the fair.
Population size and trend
The Kohi camel breed is one of the major camel breeds in the country. This breed is found in the other provinces of the country also. The estimated number of this breed in Balochistan province is almost 70,000 head. This breed still has the importance for transportation and milk are the byproducts, nevertheless, it produces an average of 10 liters of milk per day. The breed is growing and there is no threat to the population of Kohi camel, though the ecosystem of the breed is under threat.
Breeding goal of the breed
One of the major breeding goals is the production of vigorous and compact animal for work in the mountainous region. The breeders select usually male camel and there is no choice for female. All the females are being bred, as the breeders believe that male animal play role in the breeding of the camel. Milk production is the second major breeding goal because more milk is the security for the healthier calves and ultimately production of the vigorous camel. The other traits of selection are the white color, beautiful muzzle, curly wool, strong wide cannon bone and wide chest.
Special traits of the breed
Compact body, strong hindquarter, wide cannon bones and strong foot pad making it specially fit for mountainous ecology
Survival in cold weather without housing
Browsing in the small area when vegetation is available (easy care and accessible)
White nails and yellowish eye color
More weight per unit body area (Compact)
Highly resistant to diseases locally called as syed
Its white color is the phenotypic marker for more milk yield
The animal is very loyal and loving to the owners
The Kohi camel is predominantly white in coat color but some animals locally are known as Spole color (light brown with white legs) are also found. The Kohi camel has white nailed either it is white or Spole coat color. The animal has a compact body, wide cannon bone, big beefy head and short neck. The herders believe that the white color of Kohi camel produces more milk than Spole (brown body white forelegs) animal and a part of this study proved it valid. The phenotypic characteristics of the breed are presented in table 9.
Reproductive and productive performance
The male is ready for breeding at the 4 years of age and female reaches to the time of mating at the age of 3 years. About 50 she-camels are normally bred by one bull camel. While the service period remains for 6 days and estrus cycle ranging from one week to 4 weeks. The conceived she-camel changes her behavior on the 6th day of service and shows a different behavior as erecting her tail when an animal or a person comes near to her. Calving interval is normally two years, depending upon the availability of foliage and lactation length. Average reproductive life of a female is about 20 years. Conception rate of a camel is higher with appreciable calving percentage and rare abortion. A weight of the calf at the birth is almost 35-45 kg, depending upon the sex, nutritional and health status of the dam. Weaning weight at (9 months) is about 155-180 kg. The reproductive and productive characteristics of the Kohi camel.
Table Biometric parameters of the Kohi breed
Table Reproductive and productive and traits of the Kohi Camel
Average birth Weight
32 – 40 kg
31 – 40 kg
Average weaning Weight*
160 – 185 kg
155 – 180 kg
Ready for workload
Use for heavy duty
Age of puberty
Average reproductive life
Conception rate out of herd
Calving rate out of herd
Average milk production
Marketing and future economic potential
The animals are grazing in uplands of Suleiman region since March to the end of the September and after that, the animals who ready for sale are moved to the (male) fair of Mangrota, while rest of the animals are moved to the lowlands of Suleiman region and the adjoining areas of Sibi region, where they spend the autumn and winter season. Mangrota animal fair is the biggest of the area and the biggest sale point for the Camels.
The Kohi camel has very good economic potential in future. The camel meat has good taste because of the nature of the vegetation browsed. The Kohi meat is already famous in the pastoral families and has very good potential for export.