The Wise Naqa Camel and Lavish Holstein Cow

Holstein is a dairy queen among the cows and producing around 12,000 liters per lactation. Though its’ farming system (intensive) is objectionable in many features as; animal welfare, environment, energy, methane and carbon foot print etc. but satisfies the ever increasing desire of the milk consumers. Beside all discomforts, she is very generous and kind, consuming all her available (glucose) and reserve (fats) energy to produce more milk. She keeps her life on risk and experience deficiency/metabolic ailments in her shortened life. The scientists are agree that the higher yield of this generous cow has shortened the life span of Holstein.

camel milking
Camel milk let down is best in the presence of her calf

On the other hand Naqa (the milk producing camel is called as Naqa in its true habitat) is very wise in consuming and storing energy. In good days (when surplus feed available) she stores energy (fats) in her hump and re-use during the feed scarcity. Having been with the Naqa dairy (modern and intensive), I have experience that even the high yielding Naqa increases the feed conversion efficiency (during high milk yield period) to fulfill extraordinary energy demand and try to keep her stored fat intact (hump). An elder wise man whispered “she stores and uses energy judiciously to keep her body beautiful” as camel’s beauty lies in her hump.

It is a brain storming for you all. Enjoy the life, learn more and revolutionize your ideas.

National Goat Show in Pakistan, The Story of Makhi Cheni Betal Breed

Organized and reported by Dr. Sajjad Khan

Dr. Sajjad Khan is a well-known scientist and currently working as Prf. and Dean faculty of Animal Husbandry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad Pakistan.

National goat show concluded here at Faisalabad (Pakistan) last evening on 21st October. It was very well attended the show as 663 animals competed for various beauty, weight and milk competitions. Beauty competitions were breed wise. Individual (male or female), pairs (breeding male and a breeding female) and flock (five adult females + 1 breeding male) competitions were held apart from goat kid beauty competition which was across breeds.

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Makhi Cheeni Beetal (MCB) breed from Bahawalnagar

Represented breeds were various strains of Beetal (Faisalabadi, Makhi-Cheeni, Nuqri and Nagri strains), Nachi-the dancing goat (Boora, Sawa, Makra and Bulahi strains) and Diara Din Panah (Kala and Shera strains). Single strains of Barbari, Pak-Angora, and Teddy breeds also competed. While beauty competitions were within, weight and milk competitions were across breeds. Breeders and goat keepers competed for cash prizes, trophies and certificates and just for fun. The show was supported by my University, GEF-UNEP-ILRI FAnGR Asia project and the Directorate of Small Ruminants, Government of Punjab.

Animals started arriving on 18th and 90% had reached by 19th. Animals from the host district arrived on 20thmorning as well. As some had taken a 10-hours journey, rest was needed especially for milking goats. Competitions continued till late into the evening on 20th. The goat kid competition, held for the first time (to promote goat as a pet) was conducted on 21st, the day for prizes and trophies. Some 50 goat kids competed and were paraded (actually allowed to move around for about a minute) before young boys and girls (between 5-8 years of age) who were our no-card guests/visitors and had even helped farmers in handling goats during flock competitions.

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Mature Buck of Makhi Cheeni Beetal

Some 50 were randomly selected from about 90+ boys and girls present. We had 50 red ribbons to be worn to the goat kids. Every kid was individually explained to not follow his/her friends or parents (some had come) for making his/her choice, rather his/her own likeness. While farmers kept sitting with their goat kids, judges (boys and girls) marched in front from one side to the other and selected their champion. Some had done it while animal science students (girls) were tagging the goat kids in the start, while others did it on the spot. Nuqri goat kid won the first position with 7 ribbons followed by Makhi-Cheeni and Barbari goat kids. It is worth mentioning that many goat kids were purchased by the local residents’ price ranging between 80 and 400 USD/animal at the end of the goat show.

 

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MCB lactating doe can produce up to 10 kg milk per day

 

 

Highest weight was 179kg of a Beetal  (Faisalabadi) buck while highest milk yield was of a Beetal Makhi-Cheeni goat producing 4 liters of milk on a voluntary intake as owners were not allowed to offer anything and competing goats remained in the custody of organizing committee before the beginning of emptying of udders till the last milking. Similar restrictions were imposed in weight competition. This was not a kidding season for goats because in our March competition last year, amount of milk by the winning goat was around 8 liters.

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The most deficient information seemed to be scoring the dancing gait of Nachi goats while a lot of indigenous knowledge (apart from the typical nose and longer neck, foot sole was desirable to be visible while animal walks, as narrated by a Nachi farmer) awaits documentation. Love for this breed could be judged talking to a 70-year-old farmer who had raised this breed since he was 10. I hope to learn from him and similarly knowledgeable farmers in future.

 

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Deep colored spotted MCB breed pregnant yearling

 

The show was telecasted live by at least five television channels. Introduction of Nagri strain of Beetal was the pleasant surprise for technocrats and so was the introduction of a colored strain of Diara Din Panah (Shera strain) which was even more attractive than the traditional black strain. Bucks with their cock screw longhorns, massive bodies (~100kg) and long hair really gave a dangerous look (as a friend called them terrorists). New strains of Nachi were also worth watching.  It looks we need to redefine breeds to incorporate farmers standards and available. Information available in booklets on various breeds looks quite distant from reality.

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Best animal of the show was a DDP buck (black strain). The best breeder was Mr. Nazir Masih with exceptionally good animals (1st in milk competition, 1st in flock beauty competition for MCB breed and 1st in individual female beauty competition in MCB breed).

 

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8 Month old MCB female

 

As always it was a very pleasant and rewarding to organize and conduct a goat show. Interaction and exchange of ideas with farmers is an asset. Few photos are attached. More photos with video clips will soon be posted at project website  (http://fangrpk.org/).

Dr. M. Sajjad Khan

Professor

Dept. Animal Breeding and Genetics

University of Agriculture Faisalabad 38040

PAKISTAN

Raidi or Jathnasal Camel breed of Balochistan

This breed of camel purely belongs to a pastoral community of Jath. They are entirely pastoral and move on the Kachhi basin and reach to Sindh province of Pakistan in winter and in summer they reach up to their destination in the Bolan hills. According to them, Berrela breed of Thal (a small desert in Punjab province of Pakistan) and Cholistan is the offshoot of their breed (Raidi).

ImageThere is a very touchy story about the Raidi breed, as they (pastoralists) said that when the Muslim pilgrims of the sub-continent had been travelling with their camels’ caravan to Makka, that time the Raidi pastoralists were the main providers of energetic fresh camel to the Hajis (pilgrims) and to take their sick, injured camels to take rest and get well. After returning from Hajj, the pilgrims were to hand over their camel back to pastoralists and have to take their own camels. In this way, they said that the Raidi camel has the genetic characters of all the camel breeds of the sub-continent because of the breeding with the bulls of the sub-continental camels.

Riadi camel is good in milk, highly resistant to the extremely hot weather of the region, well suited for work in the agricultural field and resistant to many diseases. The camel is the heaviest in the region and weight up to 700 kg. Image

Barela Camel is the Milk Line of Riverine Pakistan

The camel is a unique and special genetic resource and a great gift of the nature to ensure livelihood in difficult situations. Camel! A One in All Creatures. The camel keepers all over the world had evolved a certain type of camel for a specific purpose, i.e. walking ability, adaptation to the certain environment, milk production etc. The Barela camel was mainly evolved for milk and meat to ensure food availability in the dry and hot ecosystems of its habitat.

Barela camel
This camel is very beautiful and a real milk line of the Barela breed

Barela camel is another important camel breed of the riverine region of Pakistan, especially Punjab. Actually, Berela is the camel of long traveling camel breeders of the region. The originate their travel from Thal desert of Sindh and reach up to Cholistan desert. Barela camel is good milk producing an animal in Pakistan. Many Brela camels are exported to the Gulf region for milk. Some were exported to the Horn of Africa. The genes of the Barela camels are found in wide and far regions of the dryland of the world.CHOLISTAN (A Future Food Basket)

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Some are darker than others. The darker type is better in milk than the light fawn

Barela camel is mostly reared in the Lesser Cholistan and on the fringe irrigated areas of district Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar, and Rahim Yar Khan area. The Barela camels have heavy strong built and large body frame. The coat color varies from light sandy to dark brown with short coarse hair. Dark brown colored animals are preferred by local people.

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Barela camels have a muscular body with dome-shaped head. The head is heavy, with a well-defined looking. The neck is medium sized with the marked curve. Eyes are bright, round with alert look and are protruding. Nose is thick, lips pendulous and ears are rounded and coarse.download

Shoulders are strong, broad and well set to the chest. Hump is very well developed in males and is placed in the center of the back. The chest pad is well developed and its touching ground evenly shows good confirmation. Legs are strong, bony, stout and well separated so that legs do not rub while walking. Hind legs are slightly weaker than forelegs and are inward curved. The foot pads are medium sized and soft. The milk vein is zigzag, wide and prominent. Milking capacity of the female camel is around 10 liters in an ordinary grazing system. The selected and well-fed animals can produce up to 35 kg of milk per day with a lactation yield of up to 12,000 kg.

Brela Breed Bull
Heavy and massive body.

 

Barela camel Herd

Beautiful Barela camel
A young camel herder with a Barela camel
A beautiful Barela camel with her family
She is the boss and the central force of the herd. She is the leader camel

Beautiful herd of Barela camel

Barela camel herd with different types of color and faces.
we can see a Marrecha camel with special ears in the Barela herd
The Barela camel Pastoralist,
Usually, they have very attractive and beautiful eyes

Barela camel pastoralist explaining the salient features of Barela camelA cropland farmer passes with a Barela camel herd

Barela camel
The heaviest and longest camels

Beautiful Barela camel

A big herd of Barela camel breed
The camel move in a big herd from place to place
Cholistan desert
Barela camel breeders
Cholistan camel breeds and pastoralists
An overnight stay of the Barela camel Pastoralists in Southern Punjab, the vicinity of the Cholistan desert

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These Breela camels won the milk competition in Punjab Pakistan
These Brela camels won the milk competition

Reference

Kohe-Suleimani officially Lohani

Habitat: Musakhail, and other mountainous area of Suleiman mountains, Zhob, Sherani, Kakar Khurasan, Loralai, Kohlu, Barkhan, Qillasaifullah, Dera Bugti and Sibi districts. The tribes rearing this breed of cattle are many, i.e. Pani, Kakar, Mandokhail, Hasni, Syed, Buzdar, Kethran, Sherani and other Pashtoon and Baloch tribes. The nucleuses of the breed are Zamri area of Musakhail and Rarkan area of Barkhan districts.

Phenotypic characteristics: The breed has wide diversity and there are many colors, i.e. white with red spots, white with black spots, red, brown, black, tan and grey colors. The size variability is also there, i.e. the animals live in the high altitude have compact body with smaller body size and the animals live in the river and plain area get larger body size.

The cattle of this breed reaches to puberty at the age of 2 years in good feeding conditions. The milk production is 18 to 30 piala (Piala is a local measurement, measure with local tea cup and 8 piala is one kg) daily, in ordinary grazing system. Body condition score is always good than the pure and cross Friesian. The milk is also thick, very high consumer preference and produces more ghee. The ghee of the breed is highly preferred and many Pashto poems are singing to praise it.

Vegetation: The vegetation like by Kohe-Suleimani cattle is mainly composed of bush, mainly found in the streams and river banks. The main vegetations are comprised of Sargasse, Saba, Mashkana, Surmagh or Spermagh, Lukha, Viza, Barvasa and Saba etc.

Population: The breed is found in a large territory of Balochistan and also in the adjoining parts of Punjab and Pakhtoonkhua provinces. The population estimation is for the areas falling in the Balochistan province is about 1.8 million and the trend is increasing.

Special traits:

v  They climb in mountains and use the vegetation of the high altitudes

v  Consume highly fibrous material

v  The disease register is very low, highly resistant to trypanosomiasis and other ticks diseases.

The kal sakhta (resistant to dry years)

v  Milk production is persistent and not adversely affected by weather and feed scarcity

v  Very hardy animal and use for draught power in mountains

The yakh sakhta (resistant to cold weather)

Option hopes: More effective tool against drought, because of its climbing ability and consuming highly fibrous feed

Economic importance: The male animals once mainly use for draught power is now getting very higher prices in market for its meat quality. Mostly male animals are sold at the age of 3 years at the occasion of EidulAdha and catch very high prices. The milk is mainly use for family use and extra milk is converted in ghee. The ghee is usually consume at family level but extra is sell out by the women of the family and the earning goes to women. This breed is very important for woman.

Morak Goat Breed of the Chaghai Kharan Desert

Habitat: Chaghai Kharan desert especially Raskoh mountains of the region is the home track of the breed. The breed is very close to its wild ancestors. There are many tribes, rearing this breed of goat, which are Badeni, Muhammad Hasani, Maingul, Jamaldini, Sasoli, Sanjrai, Nothezi, Nausherwani, Malangzai, Siafad, Faqirzai, Hajizai,.

Phenotypic characteristics: The goat has medium size with black body coat, very rare specimen with white color is also found. The long curled horns, especially in the male with beard are the salient feature of the breed. The goat also produces reasonable amount of milk.

Vegetation: Vegetation of the area liked by the goat is comprising of Ghaz (Tamarix Articula), shrub as Taghaz (Haloxylon Amodendron), bushes like Hashwarg (Rhozya Stricta), Pog (Calegnum Polygonaides) Cotor (Stockcia Brohinca), Lara (Salsola Kali), Kandar (Alhogi Camelarum), Barshonk, Karwankush, Narronk (Salsola Arbuscula), Tusso (Gaillaina Aucheri) and grasses like Mughair (Atriplex Dimprphostegium), Kash (Sacchorum Siliare), Righith (Suoeda Monica) Shanaluk (Allium Rubellum). etc.The Ice Cream Species of Plants for the Camel and Goat. Part 1Part 2. Ice Cream Species of Plants for the Camel and Goat

Population: Population of the breed is almost 0.5 million. The population trend is increasing. Morak breed is one of the badly affected goat breeds in the province by the previous drought (1998-2003), as the drought was very severe in this ecological zone.Effects of Drought on Livestock Sector in Balochistan Province of Pakistan

Special Traits:

  • Close to its wild ancestors
  • It is very accessible to inaccessible areas for grazing, i.e. the peaks of the mountains
  • The animal is very alert and fast running, hence can’t be eaten by pest and predators. More close to wild ancestors
  • High milk production in harsh environment of the region in a very low input system of the ordinary grazing

Option Hopes: Close relation to its wild ancestors.

Morak goat of Kharan Washuk region

Economic importance: The most important breed for livelihood earning of the pastoral livestock keepers of the region. It provide milk in the harsh environment when the sheep milk yield ceased. It also provides cash by selling it, when the livestock keepers need cash money. The animal may attain good weight and attract good prices because of its more meat and height.

Berberi Goat Breed


Habitat: Kachhi basin is the home tract of the breed. The area has very high ambient temperature which may reach up to 52 °C.  The tribes of the region, in the north there are Pani and Kakar Pashtoon tribes and in the south is Rind, Lehri, Somro, Bugti, Mari, Khoso, Jamali, Jatoi and Resai.

Phenotypic characteristics: The goat is smaller in size with multi coat colors. The breed is multicolored, i.e. white with black patches, white, red, yellow and others, but the preferred color is white, because of the resistance to high temperature. The goat has high prolificacy rate and produce reasonable amount of milk to feed her offspring.

Vegetation: Vegetation of the area like by the goat is Acacia, Dalbergia, Zizyphis, Presepis Juliflora, Panicum antidetals, Halexylon spp and Alhagae camalorum.

Population: Population of the breed is almost 0.8 million. The breed is also found in the in the adjoining areas of Sindh province, reared by Baloch tribes. The population trend is increasing.

Traits special:

v  The goat of this breed is highly resistant to high temperature

v  High prolificacy rate and good mothering ability

v  The animal is very alert and fast running like a deer, hence can’t be preyed by pest and predators. More close to wild ancestors

v  One of the fast growing goats in the province

Option Hopes: Tolerance to high ambient temperature.

Economic importance: Because of the fast growing ability and high prolificacy, the breed can be use for mutton production in the hostile climatic conditions of the region. The male bucks of age more than one year already gained very high prices in the major livestock market of Sindh province especially, at the occasion of Eid Aladha. The beauty of this breed, looking like a deer also attract consumer at the occasion of Eid Aldha.