Deserts are the rich lands on the earth treasured with the well-adapted unique floral and faunal diversity.
Desert is not a hell of sand but a beautiful paradise for a wide and diverse floral and faunal biodiversity. Here, I share some pictures of the desert. I took these pictures in the different time period during my desert exploration walk.
You can see different views of the desert in the pictures in the above slideshow.
Here you can see different plants of the desert, some with the fruits. You can see the steps of the Gazal in one picture. I think Ghazal eats Calitropis (Akk) leaves, please correct me if someone really knows.
Here in the above slideshow, you can see different beautiful plants. These plants are highly palatable and the camel-like it very much.
Different flowers with shining beauty in the sand. They provide a fascinating view of the desert. Such flowers are attraction and source of nectar to very tine creatures (see in the next slideshow).
Beautiful small insects can be seen in the flowers and on the seed as well.
The specialized roots of the desert flora. See the Prosopis tree is resisting to the desert conditions with the support of its strong roots.
Strong, multi and scattered roots. Some roots have the sponge like fiber coated on the roots to absorb and retain moisture.
The Desert explorer, this big rough and tough stick really helped me.
And when the mother earth calls back the creatures.
Please love mother earth. Think positively. See the beauty and use your beautiful chamber of the brain. Do not throw rubbish in the desert, the tinny creatures suffer.
Acacia tortilis tree is an incredible desert creature. It survives in harsh and hostile ecosystems and resist the normal weathering conditions but evolves its resistance to the changing climates. The Ice Cream Species of Plants for the Camel and Goat. Part 1
I always tried to learn the lessons of strength, patience, and resilience of the plants and animals. See the beautiful and special tree, the Acacia of the desert ecosystem. The botanical name is Acacia tortilis and the local names are Samr, Samur, and Salam.
I’m talking about the Acacia Tortilis (Samr, Samur or Salam), a compound leaf, the thorny and hardy tree of the Arabian desert. Highly resistant tree of drylands and the desert. The camel and goats both like it. Such strong and resilient plants products give camels strong feelings of survival. TERRESTRIAL HABITATS
Thank God, my dream came true as; specially engineered camel DNA (revealed in a recent study) makes this unique animal a solution to climate change and other challenges. The study ( the author was part of it) published in PNAS with full access here. a day before. The authors have ensured that the remarkable story over its long and celebrated history stands out like a scientific beacon. Without the camel, Arabian trade, medieval conquests, and recent communication routes would all have collapsed, changing the course of events for human civilizations as well as that incredible diversity among the camel gene pools of Asia, Africa, and even Australia.
A unique and pioneering study of the ancient and modern DNA of the ‘ship of the desert’ the single-humped camel or dromedary has shed new light on how its use by human societies has shaped its genetic diversity. DNA Sequencing Reveals Human Desert Migrations Shaped Camel Genetics.
Dromedaries have been fundamental to the development of human societies, providing food and transport in desert countries, for over 3,000 years. The dromedary continues to be vital for livelihood, food, and recreations where other species would not survive. In the current context of climate change and advancing desert landscapes, the animal’s importance is increasing and there is new interest in the biology and reproduction of the species.
In my opinion “genetic mixing and re-mixing engineered special DNA (camels) as; by constantly mixing the populations, the camels are now very genetically diverse which makes them more resilient to climate change. As predicted by the climate scientists, the mercury will go up with the passage of years, the camels will be the best choice among the others for food security and sustainable farming systems.
The study suggests that the wild camels, which are now extinct, periodically helped restock domesticated populations. Unlike many other domesticated animals, modern camel populations have maintained their ancestral genetic diversity, potentially enabling adaptation to future changes in terrain and climate, according to the authors.
For more general articles the links are given in the ensuing lines. The links are referred in the article also.
The old world camels (Dromedary and Bactrian) are well adapted to the harsh (both cold extreme and hot extreme) and hostile (deserts with scarce water and feed availability) ecosystems of the northern hemisphere of the globe. The centuries-long evolution and adaptation (selection for traits of choice by pastoralists) process made it unique and highly resilient animal to the calamities of its ecosystems. The pastoralists (traditional Institutions) managed and validated precious indigenous knowledge of camel husbandry, behavior, welfare, products development & management, breeding & neonatal care, health and recreation in the course of history while facing many challenges. The camel was mainly used in that period (pre-historic to the automobile) as a beast of burden (wars, pastoral transportation, desert accessibility etc), while milk, meat, and other products were used as by-products (additional asset).
The onset of automobile industry replaced (the intensity increased with the modernization and abundance of the automobile) the role of the camel as the beast of burden. This evolution resulted from camel to turn to its original task ~ The Milk. The thin/ smart and light camel types (mostly from desert) desert were selected for racing and riding. Camel racing – (a multi-million dollar industry in the Middle East) evolved and a set of racing norms along with rules and regulations came into being. Today UAE is home to this joyful sport and camel with racing traits are attracting million of AED annually.
The heavy camel with clear body confirmation, well-confirmed udder, milk vein etc is selected for milk production and use as dairy animals. Again a modern dairy industry is co-evolving towards a modern camel dairy in the Middle East. As camels have roots in Arab culture, both types of camel activities (racing and dairying) are developed and established in this region with the dry ecosystem. I really do not know about the challenges being faced by the racing industry, the hurdles in the dairy industry are much obvious and easy to establish. Selection for dairy traits (its heritability) is still a dream in the emerging industry. The breeding goals for this purpose are not yet established and practice.
This shift from the old to modern camel agriculture resulted in many challenges. One of the main constraints of the modern (confined dairying) is the intensive environment (housing, feeding, milking and breeding etc) which bring many hurdles like fatigue/weakness, craving/weakness, mastitis and welfare, infertility etc. Selection for body/udder confirmation is hardly practiced while selecting/buying a camel for a dairy purpose which leads to difficulties in milking and handling in the modern milking parlor.
Camel feeding is another constraint, especially in confinement. The Scientific approach is seldom practiced in this regard. In most of the cases Alfalfa or another type of hays along with some TMR and mineral mixture. I think the camel needs more (some unidentified fectors~as camel have special physiology) as camel had evolved with the unique feed requirements. Author documented more than 50 plant species as like/feed by camel in free-roaming feeding system of Suleiman Mountainous Region of Pakistan. Narrowing the diversity of feed items may cause/enhance the issues like fatigue, mastitis, and fever etc. Camel nutrition (dairy) is the utmost need issue and need further scientific research and practice.
The combination of narrowing diversity of feed items, confinement and stress (parlor along with the intensity of treatment) invite complex ailment situation which affects both the animal itself and probably the products consumers. Such challenges need to be addressed technically and scientifically with the course of time. A strange and painful factor (hiding experience) has been noticed among the camel dairy technical practitioners as they avoid to share knowledge. Some technical personnel and scientists do not want to share their experience and knowledge to keep their position strong and important. Institutional support is lacking and research institutes prioritize cow dairy and other fields (with more research articles and subject material). University level subjects related to the camel and its modern role must be incorporated for the students of the region. Institutional support in all aspect of modern camel farming is the pivotal part of camel development. The author has suggested a scientific session on modern camel dairying and its challenges in the next ISOCARD conference (2015 Kazakhstan).
Kharani camel is found in the desert ecosystem of the Chaghai Kharan desert ecological zone. Kharani camel is one of the important camel breed, well adapted to desert ecosystem and play a pivotal role in the socio-economic and socio-cultural life of the pastoral people of that region. The breed has very deep roots in the culture of the Baloch tribes.
Production systems and socioeconomic importance
The majority of the herds of camel are owned by nomadic and semi-nomadic herders. In winter time the nomadic and semi-nomadic owners migrate towards the east, up to Bolan area of the province. After the rainy season of moon soon in July and August, abundant vegetation is available there. The small farmers are mostly sedentary owners provide supplementation in the winter season because of the low or even no vegetation availability in the region.
Kharani camel is one of the best milk producers in the world and produces up to 40 liters of milk per day. The milk is widely used in the region and therefore having high consumer preference. The milk is being used fresh, soured (Sorain) and added in tea. Sorain is highly preferred and can be stored for up to one week without refrigeration. The same methodology is used in the countries of Central Asia and the product is known as camel Vodka locally.
Population size and trend
The population size estimated ranges from 9000 to 13000 and there is a speedy decline in the population. There are many factors responsible for this sad state of the situation, i.e. illegal export to Iran both male and female animals, a threat to the ecosystem of Kharani breed because of the deforestation and some herders now practice cross-breeding to produce Rodbari camel which is a good race animal in the desert. Such crossbred animal is highly liked by the smugglers which are being used for drug trafficking in the triangle of Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran.
Breeding goal of the breed
The main breeding goal of the Kharani camel breeders is to produce camel with high milk yield. The second major breeding goal is to produce camel well adapted to the desert ecosystem. The male camel is selected for breeding with the characteristics of higher milk, adaptation in the desert ecosystem, boor or fawn color. Curly wool and hanging muzzle. The camel is medium in size with long black eyelashes. Long legs, neck, and oval foot pads are the salient feature of the breed. There are two special traits of the breed, i.e. milk production ability, drought resistant and hardy against the high ambient temperature of the deserted ecosystem.
Table Biometric parameters of Kharani breed (cm)
Table Reproductive and productive traits of the Kharani Camel
|1||Average birth Weight||30-40 kg||31 – 35 kg|
|2||Average weaning Weight*||165-180 kg.||155 – 180 kg|
|5||Ready for workload||3 yr||3 yr|
|7||Use for heavy duty||7-8 yr||–|
|8||Age of puberty||4 yr||2.5-3 yr|
|9||Average work-life||25 yr||–|
|10||Average reproductive life||25 ye||21 yr|
|11||Conception rate out of herd||–||50-53%|
|12||Gestation period||–||375-386 day|
|13||Calving rate out of herd||–||45-50%|
|14||Calving interval||–||2 yr|
|15||Average milk production||–||17 kg/day|
|16||Lactation length||–||10-12 month|
|17||Wool Production||–||2 kg|
Special traits of the breed
v High milk yield in the hostile desert conditions
v Resistant to trypanosomiasis.
v Highly drought tolerant
Except for some non-descript camel majority of the camel, a population is composed of the Kharani breed. The name of this breed is derived from the famous Kharan desert. This breed is also called as Boor locally because of its color (Fawn) as presented in the figure. There are many color patterns in the Kharani camel. The pastoral people know the importance of the color of a breed and correlate it with the specific trait. The colors are fawn, red brown, white and yellow. Phenotypic characteristics are given in a table.
Reproductive and productive performance
The male is ready for breeding at the 4 years of age and female reaches to the time of mating at the age of 2.5-3 years. While the service period remains for 6 days and estrus cycle ranging from one week to 4 weeks. Calving interval is normally two years and average reproductive life of a female is about 20 years. A weight of the calf at the birth is almost 30-40 kg, depending upon the sex, nutritional and health status of the dam. Weaning weight at (12 months) is about 165-180 kg. The reproductive performance of the Kharani camel is presented in table 10.
Marketing and future economic potential
The respondents stated that the animals are sold in the local market of the town and rarely sell locally. The owners are really wise and had almost eliminated the role of middleman. Though, the town merchant and butcher don’t pay good prices to the owners. Some smugglers buy local livestock at cheap prices and smuggle it to Iran and earn handsome money. The high milk yield is one of the best economic potentials of this breed.