Category Archives: Camel Manure

Camel Manure Compost Trial in Alain, UAE

The camel manure collected from the milking parlor. The manure is slightly moist and best suited for compost. The manure from the milking parlor has the lesser quantity of the sand.

Camel manure is a treasure in reality but going waste, it is very unfortunate. In an article, I explained the whole story of the camel manure in the world, especially UAE. https://camel4all.blog/2016/02/02/camels-dungzfrom-waste-to-a-worthwhile-farming-agent/

Today (10/1/2019), I started a trial of the camel manure compost. I shall wait for 4 months and will open after that period. Then, we shall see the physical appearance, smell, texture etc.

The manure needs to be covered properly so that the air is out and we get a compost without smell.
I made a ditch in the desert, spread plastic sheet, put manure on it and covered it. Later on covered with sand to remove the air and press it tightly.
We dumped the manure with the sand. Now waiting for 4 months. The 2 blocks on both borders will indicate us the area where it was dumped.

I’m not an expert in this area, please always support me with your suggestions and comments. After we have successful compost, we shall make lab analysis.

The Camel Milk Story from the Gobi Desert Mongolia

The story is hereby released at the eve of the World Camel Day 2018.

The author was invited by the newly established Mongolian Camel Milk Company. The group owns their camels in the desert as their half families live there with the precious livestock in the amazing Gobi.

img_51551-e1529573776340.jpgI started traveling from Dubai airport (2 am, 20th April) and reached Ulaanbaatar on the 21st morning 7 am (Cengiz Khaan International Airport) via Moscow by Aeroflot. The 12 hours stay in Moscow Sheremetyevo airport was an excellent experience of life as I slept in a small cabin available on rent, the first time in my life.

A Bank advertisement with camel, the first thing I saw on arrival

Sanaa and Enkhie (the trip organizers) received me at the airport and took me to the hotel (Khuvsgul Lake). Today, the program was composed of some meetings in the UB city with camel scientists/researcher, businessmen and visiting Changiz Khan Museum.

Me with Enkhie in Chansiz Khan Museum

Travel to South Gobi Desert

Next day, we traveled for more than 10 hours by road and reached South Gobi region. We traveled another 1:30 hour to reach the nomad Ger (house). The nomad family warmly welcomed us and we stayed overnight there. I slept in the Ger first time.Nomad house decorated with many camel medals

Gobi is a vast land with rich floral biodiversityThis time period of the year, the nomads do not milk the camels but to let the calf take it and get stronger. The Bactrian camels have beautiful small teats with a strongly attached compact udder.Bactrian camel is very good riding animal

Seeing Camels and Interviewing the Herder

Next day, I woke up in the morning and went to the camels. They are still roaming near the Ger with their calves. The calves are tied. I observed the calves and the dams and found them very healthy and stronger.

Types of camel

There are 3 types of Bactrian camels in the region, i.e.

  1. Galba Gobiin Ulaan (Reddish colored camel)
  2. Khaniin Khestiin Khuren (Brown colored camel)
  3. Thukhum MTungologiin kKhos Zogdott Khuren (double line neck hair)

IMG_5761[1]

Breeding Season

The breeding season starts in October and reached the peak in December and slowly decline and cease in April. Usually, one Bull is enough for up to 70 she-camels. The details of the production traits are given in the table below.

Table: The Production Traits of the Bactrian camel in the region

Months Conception Rate (%) Calving %age Avg. Milk (kg)
Jan 25 25 0.1
Feb 15 16 0.15
Mar 4 5 0.175
Apr 2 3 0.2
May 2 1 0.3
Jun 1 1 1.2
Jul 1 1 1.8
Aug 1 2 1.6
Sep 3 2 1.5
Oct 5 4 0.5
Nov 16 15 0.17
Dec 25 25 0.1

The table clearly indicates the breeding season, calving percentage, and the milk production. The Camel Milk is lower in quantity, producing from 1-3 liter/day but the milk is thick and full of energy to give special strength to the calf to survive in challenging environment. The average milk production based on my survey is 640 ml/day with lactation yield 233 kg. The lactation here calculated on the annual basis but in actual, the camel produces for up to 8 months.

Camel Milk Products

The nomads use camel milk as fresh directly. The surplus is converted into fermented product (Harmok). The Harmok is used very widely and some products are available in the market in Ulaanbaatar. For further details about Bactrian milk, you can go to the link Detailed Nutritional Composition of Bactrian Camel’s Milk

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Harmok

The surplus Harmok is converted into CM Vodka and the residues are used to make Curt. The curt and Vodka is offered to the guests as a unique product of the Gobi.

The Attachment of Nomads with camel

The nomads love their camel very much. They call it Temeh in the Mongolian language. They use camel for riding, racing, festivals, wool, and also for meat (in rare cases).

Camel Manure~Some Feedback from the Different Quarters of the World

Here, I just copy and paste the response regarding the article Camels’ Manure~From Waste to a Worthwhile Farming Agent in the ensuing lines. These responses were received through my email.

Response from Mongolia, 
We are interested in your entitled “Looking for ways to turn camel manure into a worthwhile asset”. In Mongolia rearing population nucleus of Bactrian camel’s (two-humped) in the World. So the camels producing thousands of tons of camel manure annually too. However, camels producing moisture and liquid manure in spring and summer at reverse, stiff and globular shaped in autumn and winter seasons. The dried camel manure is used to fuel traditionally in Mongolia because 100 kg dried globular shaped camel manure is equaled by the capacity of heat with 82 kg weather-beaten zag (Haloxylon bungee-it is a very important plant species which is fed by camels) and 129 kg horse manure.  It can’t make organic fertilizer/compost, but this may be the source of electricity and will come into use the soil fertility of its ash.
We’d like to collaborate with your Camel4Life foundation.
Baldan Tuntegiin
Camel consultant researcher in Mongolia
Image result for bactrian camels manure Mongolia

Response From Women University of Africa

The other environmentally friendly option would be biogas production, this has twin benefits of green renewable energy production and value addition of farm waste. At a farm you can become self-sufficient on energy, creating a closed system with minimum environmental impacts, going towards climate change mitigation.

 

Gospell Matondi, Lecturer & Researcher, Women’s University in Africa
Room Number 9, First Floor, WUA Academic Complex Marondera
Response from Egypt
We are willing for your collaboration in compost production from camel manure.we have a good experience in this field as we are producing more than 130 thousands tons every year of cows and buffaloes manure to high and standard compost for organic agriculture in Egypt.
Dr.Mohamed F. Salem
Assistant Professor of Plant Pathology &Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute,University of Sadat City,Egypt.
Camal-Ship-Of-The-Desert-Travel-Egyptian-Natural-Beauty4.jpg

Response from CVRL Dubai, UAE; Definitively camel dung is a great product and we use it at CVRL already for many years as fertilizer for our bushes and trees.  I and some other people from the lab use it for their gardens at home.  Important is that you have to grind the balls and that is often an obstacle for its wider use.

Priv. Doz. Dr. Dr. habil. U. Wernery, Scientific Director, Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, PO Box 597, Dubai – United Arab Emirates

https://www.facebook.com/CVRL.UAEwww.cvrl.ae

From Bangladesh;  Assalamu alaikum, Excellent idea,  anaerobic digestion of manure followed by market-oriented value additions to manure and bio-slurry is the answer, you have to assess raw material supply side; how many farms produce thousand tons of manure in what period of time, and how market demand support your processing cost?  Jajakallah

Shahid ul Haque Khan
From the USA
How interesting that the balls need to be ground up. Is there is a machine that does it? Or do you have to tear them by hand? If so, that would be labor-intensive. I would imagine small-batch camel owners here might sell manure if they had the time to grind them, but it will be a low priority and a scarce commodity.
Sincerely,
Christina Adams US 
Image result for Christina Adams camel beauty
Some Responses, I received via Facebook page
Tabitha Bilaniwskyj-Zarins It is brilliant manure. I have had it under the microscope and there are so many beneficial microorganisms. I have mixed it with eucalyptus/pine mulch and it was able to break it down so quickly to make an incredible growing media for plants.
Up to the date, did not yet receive the response from the international organizations like the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, ILRI, ICARDA, and the most required here ‘the GAA’, global agenda of action for sustainable livestock production.
Nancy Abeiderrahmane
Nancy AbeiderrahmaneI thought camel dung was particularly useless, being thoroughly recycled inside the camel. In the desert I don’t even think you can burn it – it is mostly chemical ash. But maybe in farms there is more food and therefore more waste.
Chris O'Hora
 Chris O’Hora We give ours away to community gardens. Greatly appreciated by the organic group
John Geappen

I agree regarding the agricultural benefits of camel pooh. First-hand experience. What I don’t agree with is the idea any one camel will produce up to 15-17 kg of dry manure daily. Pardon the pun, but what a load of shit!
Umair Choudhary We should use organic fertilizer instead of chemical for stretegic human health and disease prevention.
Up to the date, did not yet receive the response from the international organizations like the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, ILRI, ICARDA, and the most required here ‘the GAA’, global agenda of action for sustainable livestock production.

Some Facts About Camel along with its Real Terminology

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Camelidae
Genus: Camelus
Scientific Name: Camelus dromedarius
Common Name: Camel/Jamel
Other Name(s): Dromedary Camel, Arabian Camel, One-Humped Camel

The Kharani camel in the Kharan desert

The best milk yielder in the deserted ecosystems

Group: Mammal
Number Of Species: 1
Location: Asia, Africa, and Australia
Habitat: Arid desert and scrubland
Colour: Cream, Tan, Brown, Black, white, Fawn etc
Skin Type: Hair/wool
Size (L): 2.2m – 3.5m (7.25ft – 11.5ft)
Weight: 300kg – 900kg
Top Speed: 64kph (40mph)
Diet: Herbivore
Prey: Thorny and Salty Plants, Grass, Grain
Group Behaviour: Herd
Life Span: 40 – 50 years
Age Of Sexual Maturity: 3 – 5 years
Gestation Period: 390 – 410 days
Average Litter Size: 1
Name Of Young: Huwwar/Calf
Age Of Weaning: 4-6 months
Conservation Status: Common
Estimated Population Size: 20 million
Biggest Threat: Drought
Most Distinctive Feature: Long, curved neck, and large hump
Fun Fact: Can survive without water for 10 months!

International Camel Conference at Islamia University Bahawalpur Pakistan

The International Camel Conference (ICC) under the patronage of Camel Association of Pakistan and the Islamia University of Bahawalpur was organized in Baghdad campus of Islamia University (19-21 Dec 2013). Bahawalpur being the city of the great Thar desert and home of camel culture was the right choice for this event. Many scientists, research scholars, camel herders and students from different universities and institutions participated in this important event on the camel. Many animal scientists, students and camel herders from Balochistan province also participated.

Marrecha camel safari caravan passing nearby the Dirawarr Forte

Camel is the unique heritage of the region Cholistan

FAO Balochistan chapter sponsored a group of camel herders and L&DD officials to participate in the conference. The conference was very versatile of its nature, not only covered the camel science but provided a good opportunity to camel people to know about the camel culture of great Thar desert which is famously known as the Cholistan. The vice-chancellor of the IslamiUniversityty (Dr Iftikhar) was very kind and humble while providing all the best facilities and opportunities to the conference participants. Camel scientists from 7 different countries also participated.The Desert’s Livestock Species Have Tremendous Potential for Milk Produciton

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The scientists presented their work on camel culture, milk production potential, milk characteristics, camel breeds and breeding, diseases and economic opportunities etc. The local media covered the event in a very nice way and kept the country audience and viewers aware regarding the conference. At the end of the camel conference, the following recommendations were suggested.

  • To maintain camel genetic and production diversity with the involvement of the camel herders and policymakers
  • To maintain camel habitats, especially Cholistan desert intact and safe from land grabbing etc
  • The slogan of ‘DESERT SHOULD REMAIN THE DESERT‘ was given for Eco-conservation of Camels and ‘SAVE PASTROLISM
  • More interaction development among the camel people, camel scientists and policymakers should initiate
  • Research on camel diseases and other health issues should initiate and coordinate with the international bodies in this field
  • Publication of full-length articles of the abstracts received in ICC-2013 in a peer-reviewed journal
  • Industry Liaison for Value Addition of camel products
  • Enhanced collaboration with foreign camel researchers and institute

IMG_2082[1].jpgCamel conference was a great opportunity, except the bad weather with the heavy fog. At the end of the conference, the meeting of the CAP was organized and some decisions were made. The decisions of the CAP are given in the ensuing lines.

  • The foreign scientist (not more than 5) will be invited purely on merit basis to make it more worthwhile and fruitful
  • The meeting was held on 21st Dec at 8 pm
  • I suggested a seminar (with very specific title) and with very specific number of participants
  • The seminar will be in the month of Jan or Feb 2015, as the next ISOCARD is in June 2015 Almatay Kazakhstan
  • The venue of the meeting will be decided later but most probably, Karachi, Uthal, Quetta or Lahore
  • CAP member list will be compiled according to the registered members in 3 categories, i.e.
  1. category A. Scientist/Activist/NGOs
  2. Category B. Camel Herders
  3. Category C. Students
  • Next election will be held on the occasion of the Seminar in 2015
  • The CAP registration amount, other income and expenditure if any, will be compiled and will be present to the cabinet
  • A Skype/online consultative meeting of the willing CAP members or other scientists to highlight/fix and mention the priority areas on camel in Pakistan

I am very pleased now, as the importance of camel is being appreciated in Pakistan. In the climate change context and challenge of food security; camel is the best choice to accept these challenges.

The world's leading milch camel~The Kharani

Kharani camel is found in the Chaghai-Kharan desert of Balochistan Pakistan. One of the best milch animal in the world. This breed is the most efficient (producing more milk per kg dry matter feed intake) and survives sustainable in the challenging environment. There is high variability within the breed for milk production. In the wet days of the year, when there is succulent vegetation, some specimen of the breed produce up to 38 liters of milk per day.

DSC00295

Unfortunately, this breed is under severe threat. The main cause of erosion is the depletion of Thagaz (Halloxylon spp) which is the most important feedstuff for camels in the region. Also, there is illegal export to Iran, where it is slaughtered and erosion of this unique animal genetic resources is happening since years. The policy makers of Pakistan should take steps to conserve this precious animal with the involvement of the camels’ keepers.

Kohi Camel Breed of Suleiman Mountainous Region

Kohi

Kohi camel is predominantly found in Suleiman mountainous region of Balochistan, Pashtoonkhua and Punjab provinces of the country. Some specimens are also found in the Paktia province of Afghanistan. But 70% of the breed is found in the Balochistan province.

 Production systems and socioeconomic importance

There are three major camel production systems in this region viz; nomadic, transhumant or semi-nomadic and sedentary. Socio-economic importance of camel is closely associated with existed production systems. These systems are largely determined by climatic conditions, a topography of the land, plant growth phenology, water sources, etc. As the camels are always on the move, they hardly spend more than one month at one place.

The Kohi camel plays a pivotal role in the socio-economic activities of the region. It is used in the high mountains of Suleiman mountainous series for the transportation of various items. The animal is well fit for work in that hilly land and the broad wide cannon bone make it well to do in that habitat. Camel is also used for the pastoral migration and milk production. Mangrota camel fair is one of the largest camel’s socioeconomic and cultural activities of the camel herders of Kohi breed. The herders manage camel movement and migration pattern according to the onset of the fair. 

Population size and trend

The Kohi camel breed is one of the major camel breeds in the country. This breed is found in the other provinces of the country also. The estimated number of this breed in Balochistan province is almost 70,000 head. This breed still has the importance for transportation and milk are the byproducts, nevertheless, it produces an average of 10 liters of milk per day. The breed is growing and there is no threat to the population of Kohi camel, though the ecosystem of the breed is under threat.

 

Breeding goal of the breed

One of the major breeding goals is the production of vigorous and compact animal for work in the mountainous region. The breeders select usually male camel and there is no choice for female. All the females are being bred, as the breeders believe that male animal play role in the breeding of the camel. Milk production is the second major breeding goal because more milk is the security for the healthier calves and ultimately production of the vigorous camel. The other traits of selection are the white color, beautiful muzzle, curly wool, strong wide cannon bone and wide chest.

Special traits of the breed

  • Compact body, strong hindquarter, wide cannon bones and strong foot pad making it specially fit for mountainous ecology
  • Survival in cold weather without housing
  • Browsing in the small area when vegetation is available (easy care and accessible)
  • White nails and yellowish eye color
  • More weight per unit body area (Compact)
  • Highly resistant to diseases locally called as syed
  • Its white color is the phenotypic marker for more milk yield
  • The animal is very loyal and loving to the owners

 Phenotypic characteristics

The Kohi camel is predominantly white in coat color but some animals locally are known as Spole color (light brown with white legs) are also found. The Kohi camel has white nailed either it is white or Spole coat color.  The animal has a compact body, wide cannon bone, big beefy head and short neck. The herders believe that the white color of Kohi camel produces more milk than Spole (brown body white forelegs) animal and a part of this study proved it valid. The phenotypic characteristics of the breed are presented in table 9.

 

two-type-of-kohi-camel.jpg

The 2 lines of Kohi camel, the white Kohi and the Spole Kohi

 

Reproductive and productive performance

The male is ready for breeding at the 4 years of age and female reaches to the time of mating at the age of 3 years. About 50 she-camels are normally bred by one bull camel. While the service period remains for 6 days and estrus cycle ranging from one week to 4 weeks. The conceived she-camel changes her behavior on the 6th day of service and shows a different behavior as erecting her tail when an animal or a person comes near to her. Calving interval is normally two years, depending upon the availability of foliage and lactation length. Average reproductive life of a female is about 20 years. Conception rate of a camel is higher with appreciable calving percentage and rare abortion. A weight of the calf at the birth is almost 35-45 kg, depending upon the sex, nutritional and health status of the dam. Weaning weight at (9 months) is about 155-180 kg. The reproductive and productive characteristics of the Kohi camel.

 

Table Biometric parameters of the Kohi breed

Body measurements Male Female Mean
Head length 42.23 34.16 38.20
Head width 22.60 20 21.3
w.H 176.61 176.13 176.37
T.G 206 207.86 206.93
A.G 234.15 241.5 237.825
TL 50.88 48.10 49.49
EL 12.04 11.77 11.905
EW 6.63 6.99 6.81
NL 88.85 86.18 87.515
BL 140 141.25 140.63
Est. wt 440.69 439.30 439.995

Table Reproductive and productive and traits of the Kohi Camel

No Traits Values
Male Female
1 Average birth Weight 32 – 40 kg 31 – 40 kg
2 Average weaning Weight* 160 – 185 kg 155 – 180 kg
5 Ready for workload 3 yr 3 yr
7 Use for heavy duty 7-8 yr
8 Age of puberty 4 yr 3 yr
9 Average work-life 25 yr
10 Average reproductive life 25 ye 21 yr
11 Conception rate out of herd 50-53%
12 Gestation  period 375-386 day
13 Calving rate out of herd 45-50%
14 Calving interval 2 yr
15 Average milk production 10.7 kg/day
16 Lactation length 8-11 month
17 Wool Production 2.5 kg

Marketing and future economic potential

The animals are grazing in uplands of Suleiman region since March to the end of the September and after that, the animals who ready for sale are moved to the (male) fair of Mangrota, while rest of the animals are moved to the lowlands of Suleiman region and the adjoining areas of Sibi region, where they spend the autumn and winter season. Mangrota animal fair is the biggest of the area and the biggest sale point for the Camels.

The Kohi camel has very good economic potential in future. The camel meat has good taste because of the nature of the vegetation browsed. The Kohi meat is already famous in the pastoral families and has very good potential for export.