In continuation of the previous blog.
Jathnasal or Raidi camel Breed
The habitat of Raidi breed is Kachhi basin ecological zone of the province. This breed is belonging to the mobile indigenous people of Jath community. The breeding herds of Jathnasal breed are usually community owned and they share profit on the community basis. Jath community has very strongly woven and has a very effective social system. Jathnasal breed is mainly used for the earning of the livelihood. They use the camel for family needs and camel milk is the major and only protein source for the community. They either sell the male animal which is mainly used for carting in major cities or use the male animal for draft work and earn money. They use male and female camel both for luggage transportation with their families. The Jathnasal breed is presented in the figure.
Production systems and socioeconomic importance
The Jath community, according to their elders originated from the Great Indian Desert. They traveled with their camel in search of foliage for their camel and reach to the plains of South Balochistan (Kachhi basin). They had served the camel caravan of the pilgrim going to Makka and coming back to the Indian subcontinent. Actually the Jath settled some 300 years back in this region. They came in the region with the Brela camel breed of Cholistan area from Southern Punjab. The Pat region of Balochistan was then the cross road from India to Arabia. The pilgrims were using camel for transportation and the disabled and wounded animal were being kept with the Jath community while replacing them with energetic and healthy animals. From time to time the camel of Brela was then crossed with many breeds of the sub-continent and new breed came into being. Jaths have their own values and they never slaughter camel. They use camel milk for food and rarely eat flash.
They travel round the year from Jhal Magsi area of the region and travel up to the Bolan hills. They start their movement from Jhal Magsi and surrounding areas of Sind after grazing the aftermath of wheat crops and move towards the north to Bolan hills. They travel in a very wide area with very organized way. This camel belongs to the old indigenous people of Jath community and each tribe has their own sign of identification. They don’t keep any other animal except camel but the Asseel bird (chicken) as a game bird.
Population size and trend
This breed of the camel has one of the largest camel populations of the province. The population size reaches from 60,000-70,000. The trend of the camel is stable and there is apparently no threat to the breed. Although, limiting grazing lands because of deforestation and introduction of the canal irrigation in the habitat are the hazards to this breed of camel.
The breeding goals of the breeders are to produce large sized camel fit for long traveling and tolerant to the high ambient temperature of the region. They select the vigorous male with large body size, long legs, and neck. The Jath do not consider the color of the breed. They also select the animal for long tests and more milk production to provide sufficient amount of milk to the newborn and also for the family. They also select the male with hard foot pad, to resist the spines of musket plant which is predominantly found in the region.
v Loyalty to the owner (Dalair)
v Resistant to extremely hot weather of the region (up to 52 °C)
v Resistant to diseases especially, pox and orf
v Multi-characteristic because of the blood of many breeds
v Resistant to foot rot because of the spine of musket
The Jathnasal breed is highly diversified, having the blood of many breeds, i.e. Breela, Kohi, Sindhi, Marrecha, Thari or Sindh Desi and many other breeds. The color pattern is also diversified and there are many colors, i.e. Black ( Sawan), white (Aspaid), fawn (Sorebore), deep brown (Boor) and red (Lal) colors. The size of the breed is one of the largest in the province; the phenotypic characteristics are presented in table 5 and figure 3.
Reproductive and productive performance
The breeding season of this breed is December to January. Male is ready for breeding at the 4 years of age and female reaches to the time of mating at the age of 4 years. About 40 she-camels are normally bred by one bull camel. While the service period remains for 6 days and estrus cycle ranging from one week to 4 weeks. Calving interval is normally two years, depending upon the availability of foliage and lactation length. Average reproductive life of a female is about 25 years. The details are presented in table 6.
Table Biometric parameters of the Jathnasal breed (cm)
|Estimated Weight (kg)||598||707||652.5|
Table Reproductive and productive Traits of the Jathnasal Camel
|1||Average birth Weight||60 kg||57 kg|
|2||Average weaning Weight*||180 kg||170 kg|
|5||Ready for workload||3 yr||3 yr|
|7||Use for heavy duty||7-8 yr||–|
|8||Age of puberty||4 yr||4 yr|
|9||Average work-life||25 yr||–|
|10||Average reproductive life||25 ye||25 yr|
|11||Conception rate out of herd||–||45-50 %|
|12||Gestation period||–||375-386 day|
|13||Calving rate out of herd||–||40-45 %|
|14||Calving interval||–||2 yr|
|15||Average milk production||–||12 kg/day|
|16||Lactation length||–||8-11 month|
|17||Wool Production||–||2 kg|
Marketing and future economic potential
The camel of Jathnasal breed catches very high prices from the camel carters (the person who drive the cart) of the towns and large cities of Sindh. The healthy male animal with good body figures catches a price up to 90, 000 Rupees. The camel herders do not sell the female animals. Jath community do not sell their fertile female camels because the camel is the only source of earning and they have no lands for cultivation. The milk is use to offer to the newborns and family use also. The Jath community relies on the camel milk and they like it very much.